The ask or offer price is the price offered by the seller. The bid price will always be lower than the ask price, excpet when there is a trade when the prices are equal and matched. Clean price : the price of a bond not including any accrued interest. The clean price becomes equal to the market price immediately following a coupon payment. Coupon rate : the nominal rate the bond pays. Duration : the effective maturity of a bond and its sensitivity to changes in interest rates.

When comparing two bonds, calculating duration makes it easier to tell which one to buy if each has a different coupon rate and different maturity date. Market price : the price of a bond, including the interest accrued on the next coupon payment. Par : the face value of a bond at issue date. If a bond is quoted at less than its face value, it is known as a discount bond. Yield to maturity - 'YTM' : the rate of return anticipated on a bond if it is held until the maturity date.

YTM is considered a long-term bond yield expressed as an annual rate. Par value is stated value or face value, with a typical bond making a repayment of par value at maturity. Par value, in finance and accounting, means the stated value or face value. From this comes the expressions at par at the par value , over par over par value and under par under par value.

A bond selling at par has a coupon rate such that the bond is worth an amount equivalent to its original issue value or its value upon redemption at maturity. A typical bond makes coupon payments at fixed intervals during the life of it and a final repayment of par value at maturity. Together with coupon payments, the par value at maturity is discounted back to the time of purchase to calculate the bond price. Bond Price Formula : Bond price is the present value of coupon payments and the par value at maturity.

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Par value of a bond usually does not change, except for inflation-linked bonds whose par value is adjusted by inflation rates every predetermined period of time. The coupon payments of such bonds are also accordingly adjusted even though the coupon interest rate is unchanged. Yield to maturity is the discount rate at which the sum of all future cash flows from the bond are equal to the price of the bond.

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The Yield to maturity YTM or redemption yield of a bond or other fixed- interest security, such as gilts, is the internal rate of return IRR, overall interest rate earned by an investor who buys the bond today at the market price, assuming that the bond will be held until maturity, and that all coupon and principal payments will be made on schedule. Yield to Maturity : Development of yield to maturity of bonds of maturity of a number of Eurozone governments. Contrary to popular belief, including concepts often cited in advanced financial literature, Yield to maturity does not depend upon a reinvestment of dividends.

Yield to maturity, rather, is simply the discount rate at which the sum of all future cash flows from the bond coupons and principal is equal to the price of the bond.

The formula for yield to maturity:. The current yield is 5. An inflation premium is the part of prevailing interest rates that results from lenders compensating for expected inflation. An inflation premium is the part of prevailing interest rates that results from lenders compensating for expected inflation by pushing nominal interest rates to higher levels.

In economics and finance, an individual who lends money for repayment at a later point in time expects to be compensated for the time value of money, or not having the use of that money while it is lent.

In addition, they will want to be compensated for the risks of the money having less purchasing power when the loan is repaid. These risks are systematic risks, regulatory risks and inflationary risks. The first includes the possibility that the borrower will default or be unable to pay on the originally agreed upon terms, or that collateral backing the loan will prove to be less valuable than estimated. The second includes taxation and changes in the law which would prevent the lender from collecting on a loan or having to pay more in taxes on the amount repaid than originally estimated.

The third takes into account that the money repaid may not have as much buying power from the perspective of the lender as the money originally lent, that is inflation, and may include fluctuations in the value of the currencies involved. The inflation premium will compensate for the third risk, so investors seek this premium to compensate for the erosion in the value of their capital, due to inflation.

Actual interest rates without factoring in inflation are viewed by economists and investors as being the nominal stated interest rate minus the inflation premium. The Fisher equation in financial mathematics and economics estimates the relationship between nominal and real interest rates under inflation.

In economics, this equation is used to predict nominal and real interest rate behavior. This is not a single number, as different investors have different expectations of future inflation. Since the inflation rate over the course of a loan is not known initially, volatility in inflation represents a risk to both the lender and the borrower. In finance and economics, nominal rate refers to the rate before adjustment for inflation in contrast with the real rate.

The real rate is the nominal rate minus inflation. In the case of a loan, it is this real interest that the lender receives as income. Real and nominal : The relationship between real and nominal interest rates is captured by the formula. In this analysis, the nominal rate is the stated rate, and the real rate is the rate after the expected losses due to inflation. Since the future inflation rate can only be estimated, the ex ante and ex post before and after the fact real rates may be different; the premium paid to actual inflation may be higher or lower.

This time may be as short as a few months, or longer than 50 years.

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Once this time has been reached, the bondholder should receive the par value for their particular bond. The issuer of a bond has to repay the nominal amount for that bond on the maturity date. After this date, as long as all due payments have been made, the issuer will have no further obligations to the bondholders. These dates can technically be any length of time, but debt securities with a term of less than one year are generally not designated as bonds.

Instead, they are designated as money market instruments.

### Bond Yield Calculation Using Microsoft Excel

Money market interest rates : Interest rates of one-month maturity of German banks from to Most bonds have a term of up to 30 years. That being said, bonds have been issued with terms of 50 years or more, and historically, issues have arisen where bonds completely lack maturity dates irredeemables. In the market for United States Treasury securities, there are three categories of bond maturities:.

Because bonds with long maturities necessarily have long durations, the bond prices in these situations are more sensitive to interest rate changes. In other words, the price risk of such bonds is higher. Although this present value relationship reflects the theoretical approach to determining the value of a bond, in practice, the price is usually determined with reference to other, more liquid instruments.

In general, coupon and par value being equal, a bond with a short time to maturity will trade at a higher value than one with a longer time to maturity. This is because the par value is discounted at a higher rate further into the future. Finally, it is important to recognize that future interest rates are uncertain, and that the discount rate is not adequately represented by a single fixed number this would be the case if an option was written on the bond in question stochastic calculus may be employed.

Where the market price of a bond is less than its face value par value , the bond is selling at a discount. Conversely, if the market price of bond is greater than its face value, the bond is selling at a premium.

The yield to maturity is the discount rate which returns the market price of the bond. YTM is the internal rate of return of an investment in the bond made at the observed price. To achieve a return equal to YTM i.

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What happens in the meantime? Over the remaining 20 years of the bond, the annual rate earned is not Payment frequency can be annual, semi annual, quarterly, or monthly; the more frequently a bond makes coupon payments, the higher the bond price. The payment schedule of financial instruments defines the dates at which payments are made by one party to another on, for example, a bond or a derivative.

It can be either customised or parameterized.